Research and Innovation System

The graph below illustrates the strengths and weaknesses of the Czech R&I system. Reading clockwise, it provides information on human resources, scientific production, technology valorisation and innovation. Average annual growth rates from 2000 to the latest available year are given in brackets.

table20

The Czech innovation system displays a complex pattern of relative strengths and weaknesses affecting both its input and output. While it currently scores lower than the EU average on most S&T indicators, it has been catching up with the group of innovation followers18 and outperforms its reference group in terms of new graduates in science and engineering, business R&D intensity, researchers employed by the business sector and innovation in SMEs. The region of Prague is amongst the EU regions with the highest share of researchers (full-time equivalent) in total employment (superior to 1.8%) and is the EU leader in terms of the share of the labour force employed in a S&T occupation (more than 50%). Other relative strengths include international co-publications, non-R&D business expenditure and HT and MT exports.

The number of international scientific co-publications has surged over the last decade, in particular in partnerships with Germany, the United Kingdom, France, Italy and Slovakia, which is evidence of increased scientific networking within the ERA. The S&T output of the Czech innovation system is critically weak in terms of high impact scientific publications, PCT patents and attractiveness to foreign doctoral students (other than Slovaks). Other marked weaknesses highlighted in the IU scoreboard include public R&D expenditure, access to venture capital and license and patent revenues from abroad. There are also relatively few coinventions of patents, which may hint at potential weaknesses in the capacity to engage in international technological networks.